I really like your write up on this. As someone that does pricing for saas, I would say that if you look beyond theoretical application of this you will run into the customer perception problems you listed (changing prices, and especially fairness if people are being charged differently).
There may be ways you can obfuscate these price differentials through opaque marketplaces or private contracts. This is easiest on small transactions with understood variability (aws spot pricing, etc).
I would also add that value based pricing doesn’t ignore competition, it’s just very hard to assess value regardless of direct competition unless you are dealing in commodities. What you are doing is really building a value based pricing model that determines value by repetition of ROI assessment with price as the variable.