First of all, this comment can be quite long. Writing long answers is my habit and it gives me pleasure in such lengthy thoughtful discussions. That’s why I came here at Reddit (many Quorans didn’t loved my long answers at quora.
These terms of and consciousness are very confusing. As you said, the rabbit hole goes deep. But given the researches which are going on in this field and a general rise in ‘acceptance level for AI beings’ , I believe that we too can make an infinitesimal contribution in the growth of this field and in particular the understanding of human brain and psychology. (You may ask: How can I say that AI beings will be accepted or their necessity is there? Well I request you to look around yourself. People are using assistants like Siri and Cortana, servers are being managed daily by programs, industries are running via such primitive predictive natured programs and so on… The use of AI, once its conceived, will be on a very extensive scale. But yes some restrictions would have to be there…).

First of all, what are the meanings of these two words.

What does intelligence means? I first look up in my Oxford’s dictionary. It says that intelligence is the ability to gain and apply knowledge and skills. A computer, say a windows device is programmed to display a particular icon, say I1. It goes through its directories and program files, it compiles the code and shows the icon. Now if we think of the directories and the program files that this windows machine has as its KNOWLEDGE, then we can no doubt say that this device APPLIED THAT KNOWLEDGE and showed a correct response to an input (display the icons I1). Skill is defined as the ability to do something well. Oh yeah the machine displayed the icon very well. It interpreted the code very well!!
Let’s again take our windows machine and open Microsoft office in it. We all know that if we type an incorrect word, a red line comes below the word. Right clicking it gives us an option, amongst the many, to ADD TO DICTIONARY. This option is actually an order to the machine to remember the word and never show a red line below it. The machine however, doesn’t puts a red line below incorrect CAPITAL WORDS (at least with my laptop it’s the case. Probably those of you using a different OS and text editor etc. etc. might not encounter this .). Neither does it itself correct the exchanged up letters in words (like ptos gets converted to pots) except in very rare cases where the exchange and the word intended is clearly seen (by us and the machine. For example, psychology and pscyhology. {putting a full stop after latter to as to prevent auto correct}). So what do we get to know from all of this: that the machine can gain knowledge and apply it in only specific ways as defined by the program.
Let’s now see what does consciousness means. I look up in my trusted oxford dictionary again and it says that being conscious means to be aware of and respond to your surroundings. Now first look at ourselves. You are a part of my environment. My cat on my side is part of my environment. If you say to me “Hey you dumbass, speak concisely!!” I will respond an say “That’s not happening anytime soon, you jerk!!”. There was an input and I gave an output. My cat suppose wakes up from his sleep and starts meowing, my response or output to this input would be to give my cat an egg!! My eyes constantly see the keyboard and there’s an input of seeing a key plus an INTERNAL INPUT OF BRAIN TO BRAIN of telling me which letter should come into the word I wish to type and BANGGGG!!! the output is that I press a key!! So I am aware and responding in infinite ways to the environment around me hence I am conscious. As this process of being ‘conscious’ requires thinking, I believe Rene Descartes might had a point when he said “I think therefore I am”. Now when I sleep, my eyes are shut, my ears are responding rarely(except for the strongest of impulses) and my other senses are in a way OFFLINE. But at 4:00 AM rings the alarm and I wake up. Why? Because I was partly conscious and APPLIED THE KNOWLEDGE THAT THAT RYTHMIC BOOMING NOISE IS OF MY ALARM AND I NEED TO WAKE UP!!. The day y sense goes down, I won’t response and I would either be dead or unconscious.
Let’s take the case of an electronic circuit. The circuit is a bulb and battery circuit, closed and the bulb is glowing. If heat up one of the wires attached to the bulb, the resistance of the wire will rise and the bulb will glow dim. THAT’S A RESPONSE OF THE CIRCUIT TO ENVIRONMENT. I through this setup in salty water, and in some time rust develops on the circuit and the battery goes weak and the bulb glows dim. THAT IS ALSO A RESPONSE. I f however, I say to the circuit, ” You are useless circuit. Who the hell makes such simple circuits at 18 years of age!! I am going to destroy you!!” , the circuit wont respond in any way. So the circuit is conscious in certain ways only. Similar is the case with my laptop. It can tell me whether an anomaly in its disk (i.e. a virus) is there or not, whether it has enough or not… and it will responds to all those inputs. But the moment i punch it and break its screen, it won’t retaliate. So we deduce the following: MACHINES ALSO HAVE CONSCIOUSNESS BUT THAT ISN’T AS WELL DEVELOPED AND AS FOUND IN LIVING ORGANISMS.
Now in 2016 my grandfather passed away. Little by little his body parts went and dead, starting from his toes uptil his nose. In the end when his hands were about to go, he waved and smiled at us weakly. But once his hands also went dead, he didn’t responded to our inputs although his breathing kept on going. SO A MACHINE HAS CONSCIOUSNESS AND O ONLY CERTAIN OF ITS PARTS. A HUMAN HAS HOWEVER SENSATION IN ALL OF HIS PARTS EXCEPT A FEW (like when the barber cuts my hair, I won’t respond until he cuts my scalp too 🙂 ) IF WE LIMIT THE CONNECTIONS OF HUMANS WITH THEIR OWN PARTS, THEY WILL BECOME DUMB TOO!!.
So what all we have got to know:-
1. Intelligence is the gaining and application of knowledge and skills.
2. Consciousness is the awareness we have of our surroundings.

Now based on our discussion it is clearly observable that if we assign numbers/variables to ‘degree of intelligence’ and ‘degree of consciousness’ then these variables are directly proportional to each other. Increase in consciousness increase intelligence, and decrease in it decrease intelligence.
So if we wish to make AI beings, we must make them such that they have control over more of their parts and functions(except for some operations which will be run by pre-installed programs, like our subconscious programs makes our heart beat), have the ability to change their structure, code and grow and also have more diverse input-output ranges.

Let me know what you think!!

Live long and prosper

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